Black Walnut (Juglans nigra, Family: Juglandaceae ), is a dark brown North American hardwood. Black walnut is native to the eastern United States and Canada. Black walnut trees reach heights of 120 ft (37 m), with a diameter of over 3 ft (1 m). The Wood: The sapwood of black walnut is nearly white, while the heartwood is light brown to dark, chocolate brown, often with a purplish cast and darker streaks. The wood is heavy and hard.
Oak, Red; (genus: Quercus) Oak has two main classes, red and white. Red oaks are found mainly in eastern Canada and the United States and is one of the most common domestic hardwoods. Red oak is one of the most beautiful woods to work with because of its grain pattern and character. Red Oak has an open grain structure. Sapwood is whitish to grayish or pale reddish brown. The heartwood is pinkish to light reddish brown or light brown. Tree: Northern Red Oak trees (Quercus rubra) reach a height of about 60 to 90 feet (18 to 27 m), with a trunk diameter of 12 to 36 inches (30 to 90 cm).
Blackwood, African; (Dalbergia melanoxylon) AKA: African ebony, African grenadilo, Banbanus, Ebene, Grenadilla, Grenadille d'Afrique, Mpingo, Mufunjo, Mugembe, Mukelete, Pau preto, Poyi, Zebra wood. African Blackwood occurs in the savannah areas of Africa, and is also found in western India. The small tree often develops more than one stem. It grows to a height of 15 to 20 feet (4.5 to 6 m), and occasionally to 50 feet (15 m). The trunk is often short, fluted, and rarely cylindrical, with diameters less than 12 inches (30 cm). The narrow sapwood is usually yellow-white in colour. The heartwood is almost black; it is dark-purple brown in color, with predominant black streaks. The grain is usually straight and will polish to a brilliantly lustrous surface. The wood has severe blunting effect on cutting tools. African Blackwood is preferred to Ebony for the manufacture of woodwind instruments.
Bloodwood; (Brosimum paraense). AKA: Satine (because of it luster), Amapa rana, Pau rainha, Falso pao brasil, Conduru, Cardinal Wood, Satinwood, Muirapiranga (Brazil), bois satine (France), Satine rouge, Satine rubane, Palo de oro, or brazil wood. The tree is of medium height with trunk diameters that average about 18 inches. The species is widely distributed and common within its range in the Amazon. The species is abundant, and considered secure. The clearly distinct sapwood is yellowish white in color. The heartwood is deep red, red-orange, or pale reddish-brown, and sometimes has a greenish-yellow ribbon. The grain is close, straight to slightly interlocked. The wood is dense and heavy, it will sink in water. A strong, hard, tough hardwood that works easily, but blunts tools. The deep color is quite stable.
Maple, Hard; (Acer saccharum) - Hard maple, Rock maple, Sugar maple. Maple is found most common in eastern Canada and New England, but extends southward to North Carolina, and west to eastern Kansas. Tree: Sugar maple grows to a height of 70 to 120 feet (21 to 37 m), with a diameter of about 24 to 36 inches (60 to 90 cm). Sugar maple grain is typically straight, but it can also be curly or wavy. The wood is described as close-grained and subdued, sometimes with decorative figuring including, bird's eye, burl, blistered, leaf, and fiddleback. The sapwood is white in color, with a reddish tinge. The heartwood is uniformly pale reddish brown or light tan. Maple has very high bending strength, medium hardness, and is heavy.
Narra (Amboyna); (Pterocarpus indicus); AKA: Amboyna(burl), Angsana, Nara, Narravitail, New Guinea rosewood, Papua New Guniea rosewood, Rosewood, Sena, Solomons padauk, Yaya sa. Narra is indigenous to Malaysia, but is also found in the Philippines, Borneo, Burma, New Guinea, and the Malay Archipelago. It is also often planted as an ornamental and a shade tree in several regions, including India, along roadsides, and in gardens because of its flowers and handsome foliage. The tree is reported to reach a height of up to 100 feet (30 m) or more, with a trunk diameter of 24 to 36 inches (60 to 90 cm). It develops trunks that are often of rather poor form and high, wide-spreading buttress roots. The sapwood is whitish or straw-colored. The heartwood ranges from blood red, golden brown, light yellow, reddish brown to a distinct red. It darkens upon exposure. The grain is typically interlocked, sometimes wavy. The wood is often marked with little twisted curls and knots which give a pronounced fine figure. The wood is strong and heavy.
Afzelia; Family: Leguminosae;
Common Names: Doussie (Cameroons), Apa, Aligna (Nigeria), Mkora, Mkola, Mbambakofi (Tanzania), Chanfuta, Mussacossa (Mozambique), Beyo, Meli, Azza (Uganda).
Distribution: West, Central, and East Africa. Occur in the dense evergreen forests but also common in the savanna and coastal forests of East Africa.
Tree: Reaches best development on moist sites with heights of 80 to 120 ft and clear boles 30 to 50 ft; trunk diameters 3 to 5 ft and more; large irregular buttresses sometimes present.
The Wood: Heartwood reddish brown after exposure; sapwood pale straw to whitish, well defined grain colour. Texture moderate to coarse; grain straight to interlocked; medium luster; without strong odor or taste.
Uses: Exterior window frames, doors, flooring, heavy construction including harbor and dock work, furniture. Good acid resistance: used for vats and tanks.
Osage Orange, (Maclura pomifera), AKA: Bodare, Bodark, Bodeck, Bodock, Bois d'arc, Bowwood, Geelhout, Hedge, Hedge Apple, Hedge-plant, Horse Apple, Maclura, Mock Orange, Naranjo Chino, Osage Apple-tree, Rootwood, Wild Orange, Yellow-wood. Native to Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas, but since escaped and naturalized throughout the eastern and north western US. Osage Orange is a medium size tree with thorns which grows in bottom lands. It can grow to 60 feet tall and 3 foot diameter. The sapwood of Osage Orange is narrow and light yellow. The heartwood is golden to bright orange, which darkens upon exposure. The wood is very hard, heavy, tough, resilient and takes a high luster. The wood is difficult to work due to its hardness.
Apple; Malus sylvestris; Family: Rosaceae; apple, common apple, wild apple.
Apple (Malus spp.) consists of more than 30 hardwood species that occur on both sides of the Atlantic in northern temperate climate zones. Apple wood is very similar in appearance with pear (Pyrus spp.) and other "fruitwoods" in the rose family (Rosaceae). Malus is the old Latin name for apple. Apple hybrids occur with North American crab apples: Malus angustifolia, Malus coronaria, Malus fusca, and Malus ioensis.
Distribution: Apple is a cultivated fruit tree that has escaped and naturalized locally across southern Canada, eastern United States, and from Washington south to California. Native to Europe and west Asia. Apple grows wild in parts of Great Britain, Scandinavia, Europe, and southwestern Asia. Apple will grow in most temperate climates, and is prized for its abundance of large edible fruit.
Tree: The tree rarely reaches 30 ft (9 m), with a small crooked bole to 1 ft (0.3 m) in diameter.
Wood: Apple wood has a reddish gray heartwood and light reddish sapwood (12 to 30 rings of sapwood). When steamed, the wood becomes reddish brown to dark red-brown. The wood of wild apple trees is said to be better than that of cultivated varieties, which is also true of pear trees. The wood is very difficult to split, is hard and difficult to work, but is easily stained and polished. The wood cuts cleanly but is moderately hard to saw.
Durability: When exposed, apple wood is nonresistant to heartwood decay. Many older trees will be weakened by wood rot and easily wind damaged, especially when the branches are weight down with fruit.
Uses: Apple is used in furniture, turnings, mallet heads, skittle balls, umbrella handles, toys, cog wheels, fruit presses, shuttles, wood screws, plane blocks, bookbinder screws, boat knees, canes, walking sticks, drawing instruments, pianos and tool handles.
Olivewood; Olea europaea. AKA: Olive wood, Mediterranean olive, European olive, Spanish olive, etc.
Native to Europe, the Mediterranean, Africa, and parts of Asia, the tree is now grown commercially in Africa, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Mediterranean Basin and California. The olive tree has a 5,000 year history of cultivation for its leaves, fruit and oil. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. The wood is difficult to find and expensive. The tree belongs to the Oleaceae family, which also includes ash, jasmine and lilac trees. The tree is small, often shrub like reaching 15 to 30 feet tall. African sub-species can reach 100 feet tall. The wood is hard and dense with wild and colorful grain patterns, including reds to creams with brown and / or black lines.